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IMAX and Dolby cinemas are both very popular among moviegoers, offering high-quality movie experiences. However, many people may not know the meaning of IMAX and the differences between IMAX and Dolby cinemas. Don’t worry, we’ll reveal the answers right away.

Regarding IMAX, IMAX movies, and IMAX cinemas

IMAX stands for Image Maximum, and it is also a registered trademark of IMAX Corporation.

As the name suggests, IMAX movies are films that utilize IMAX Corporation’s technology. Before the advent of IMAX, although various projection systems existed, they failed to sustain due to operational difficulties and poor image stability. It wasn’t until the persistent efforts of IMAX’s inventors to improve the technology that it became what it is today.

IMAX Movie Theatre
IMAX Movie Theatre

An IMAX theater is a place specifically designed to screen IMAX movies, known for its high resolution and giant screens. However, Richard Gelfond, Co-CEO of IMAX Corporation, doesn’t like the impression that IMAX is associated only with giant screens; instead, he hopes people perceive it as “the best immersive experience on Earth.” Nevertheless, giant screens remain a standard feature of IMAX cinemas.

Another theater often mentioned alongside IMAX is the Dolby cinema. What are the differences between them?

IMAX vs. Dolby cinema:What are the differences between them?

Regarding visual presentation:

Both IMAX and Dolby cinemas offer extremely high-quality visuals, providing an ultimate visual experience by showcasing every detail of the film. However, Dolby cinemas have a slight edge over IMAX cinemas in terms of visual quality.

Dolby cinemas support HDR (High Dynamic Range) technology and 12-bit color, 12-bit depth, and 10,000 nits of brightness, surpassing the capabilities of even the best dual 4K laser projectors, which can only achieve 8000 nits. The maximum resolution for IMAX cinemas is 6K, while for Dolby cinemas, it’s 4K.

Difference Between Dolby Cinema Vs LMAX For A Better Movie Experience
Difference Between Dolby Cinema Vs LMAX For A Better Movie Experience

Regarding resolution:

IMAX, known for maximizing images, can achieve much higher resolutions than Dolby cinemas.

According to IMAX Corporation, the theoretical resolution using IMAX cameras can reach 18K (18000×13433 pixels per frame), although currently, there are no machines capable of handling such resolutions. Thus, when projecting films, IMAX cinemas can achieve a maximum resolution of only 6K. In contrast, Dolby cinemas have a maximum resolution of 4K.

Differences in sound effects:

Sound systems and audio processing

IMAX cinemas use advanced sound systems, employing audio processing techniques to deliver surround sound through multiple speakers, providing audiences with an immersive audio experience. While IMAX’s sound processing technology is impressive, there is still a significant gap compared to Dolby cinemas’ Dolby Atmos technology. With Dolby Atmos, viewers experience fully enveloping sound fields, capturing the most realistic sound details.

Sound quality and immersion

The audio quality in IMAX cinemas varies depending on the equipment used. Digital IMAX cinemas typically use IMAX 6-channel audio, similar to traditional Dolby 5.1 surround sound. However, cinemas equipped with dual 4K laser projectors utilize a 12.1-channel audio setup, offering improved sound quality but still not as advanced as Dolby cinemas’ object-oriented sound output. Dolby Atmos doesn’t rely on traditional channel-based audio; instead, it supports up to 64 independent audio objects, allowing viewers to hear richer, more nuanced sound details.

Overall movie-watching experience differences:

Comfort and viewing environment

IMAX cinemas provide spacious and comfortable viewing environments, while Dolby cinemas offer more intimate and quiet settings.

IMAX Vs Dolby Movie Theatre
IMAX Vs Dolby Movie Theatre

2D and 3D

Many people confuse IMAX with 3D movies, assuming that IMAX refers exclusively to 3D movies. However, as mentioned earlier, IMAX is a technology that encompasses various projection systems, such as IMAX digital projection systems, IMAX laser projection systems, and dual 4K laser projection systems (also known as second-generation laser IMAX systems).

Therefore, IMAX cinemas can screen both 2D and 3D movies, offering a variety of genres such as action, comedy, and science fiction. Dolby cinemas, on the other hand, only support 2D movies, limiting their selection to films less reliant on 3D visuals.

Ticket prices:

While Dolby cinemas boast excellent visual and audio quality, IMAX cinemas have access to a wider range of movie titles, including many popular sci-fi blockbusters exclusive to IMAX cinemas. As a result, IMAX ticket prices are generally higher than those of Dolby cinemas.

Conclusion:

Through the detailed comparison above, you now understand the differences between IMAX and Dolby cinemas. If a movie primarily relies on 3D visuals, IMAX cinemas are the only option. However, if a movie is available in both 2D and 3D formats, you can choose your preferred theater. Additionally, the nearest theater may also be a good choice.

The application of IMAX cinemas and Dolby cinemas on LED screens:

Currently, most cinemas use projector and screen setups to screen movies. While this traditional setup is cost-effective and easy to install, the displayed images are often coarse and dim, resulting in poor viewing experiences, especially in well-lit environments.

Recognizing the shortcomings of traditional projection methods, Samsung envisioned and planned to incorporate LED screens into cinemas as early as 2014. After more than three years of exploration and development, Samsung Electronics unveiled a groundbreaking LED movie screen in March 2017 in Las Vegas. This innovation amazed spectators upon its debut.

Samsung Onyx Cinema LED Technology
Samsung Onyx Cinema LED Technology

Subsequently, Samsung installed the world’s first theater LED screen at Lotte Cinema World Tower in Seoul in July of the same year. One year later, Samsung installed China’s first cinema LED screen at Wanda Plaza in Jiangqiao, Shanghai.

Samsung install first cinema LED screen in Shanghai, China
Samsung install first cinema LED screen in Shanghai, China

Leveraging the integration and scalability of LED screens, it’s now possible to seamlessly integrate IMAX or Dolby technologies, achieving unparalleled visual and audio quality in cinemas. The application of Samsung’s LED movie display screens has inspired hope among numerous LED display manufacturers in China.

Many of them have obtained DCI (Digital Cinema Initiatives) certification, and in various cities, they have combined their technology with IMAX or Dolby to create exceptional and breathtaking viewing experiences. Let’s look at two representative cases.

The world’s largest LED giant screen cinema – Wushang Mall International Theater (Wuhan, China)

Located in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, the Wushang mall international IMAX Theater covers an area of nearly 10,000 square meters. It houses a total of 14 auditoriums with 2,733 seats and has a total investment exceeding 60 million yuan. The cinema includes IMAX laser auditoriums, HeyLed giant screen auditoriums, VIP auditoriums, among others.

HeyLed Giant Cinema LED Screen with 3D effect
HeyLed Giant Cinema LED Screen with 3D effect

The HeyLed giant screen auditorium features a 20-meter LED cinema  screen, making it the world’s largest LED giant cinema screen. It provides naked-eye 3D display and suspended 3D imaging effects. HeyLed’s high brightness, high contrast, and low crosstalk advantages are particularly prominent. Paired with a 12.1-channel sound system, it enhances the immersive viewing experience when watching 3D blockbusters.

The world’s first Dolby-standard LED giant screen cinema – Yin Xing International Cinema (Nanchang, China)

Located in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China, Yin Xing International Cinema has a total area of over 8,000 square meters. It houses 13 special auditoriums with a capacity of accommodating 2,362 viewers simultaneously. Yin Xing International Cinema has introduced the world’s first symbol Dolby-standard CINITY LED giant cinema screen.

The World's First Dolby Standard LED Giant Screen Cinema
The World’s First Dolby Standard LED Giant Screen Cinema

The CINITY LED giant cinema screen not only supports 4K/120-frame high format but also preserves Dolby’s exclusive HDR image quality, immersive sound, and other features intact. It overturns the traditional projection system’s visual perception, becoming the new benchmark for movie projection.

Standardization of LED cinema screen systems

With the application of LED cinema screens, the DCI has drafted standards for the application of LED screens in cinemas. Currently, the DCI Alliance has proposed the following preliminary standards and hopes to receive feedback from more industry professionals.

Preliminary standards for LED cinema systems proposed by the DCI Alliance:

  • HDR videos in cinemas use a PQ (Perceptual Quantization) curve with 12-bit depth.
  • Cinema HDR achieves a peak brightness of 500 nits and a black level of 0.001 nits.
  • Use of the DCI-P3 color space rather than the larger BT.2020.
  • Resolution of at least 4096 horizontal pixels and 2160 vertical pixels.

It is believed that the application of these standards can better improve LED cinema screen systems and bring us the best viewing experience.

We often hear abbreviations in English like HD, Full HD(FHD), Ultra HD(UHD), 4K, and so on, which can be overwhelming. Today, I’ll use a table to help you understand their relationships.

Comparison of HD, Full HD, Ultra HD, and 4K Data

Definition Image Resolution(W*H)Pixel Density
HD1280 x 720 pixels0.92 megapixel
Full HD(FHD)1920 x 1080 pixels2.07 megapixels
Ultra HD(UHD)3840 x 2160 pixels8.3 megapixels
4K4096 x 2160 pixels8.8 megapixels

From the table, we can gather the following information:

  1. Image resolution (width * height) from low to high: HD (1280 x 720 pixels) < Full HD (1920 x 1080 pixels) < Ultra HD (3840 x 2160 pixels) < 4K (4096 x 2160 pixels).
  2. Clarity is determined by pixel density; the denser the pixels, the higher the quality, from low to high: HD (<1 megapixel) < Full HD (2.07 megapixels) < Ultra HD (8.3 megapixels) < 4K (8.8 megapixels).
  3. For the same image, the LED screen with higher resolution can display more image details.
HD, FHD, UHD, And 4K
HD, FHD, UHD, And 4K

I don’t know if you have noticed that in LED display applications, prices vary greatly with different refresh rates. That’s because when we want to achieve different resolutions for the same model of LED display, the screen size will definitely be different.

The size of the LED display is one of the important factors that determine the price. The price difference between FHD LED displays and HD LED displays tends to cost 1,000-2,000 CNY per square meter and it is normal for 4K LED displays to even cost 7,000-80,00 CNY per square meter more than high-definition LED displays.

Why do LED display prices vary significantly with different resolutions?

We all know HD, Full HD, Ultra HD, 4K. These definition words are usually used to describe products such as LCD or OLED.

If we use them in some professional fields (such as monitoring rooms, virtual shooting, etc.), you will find that LED displays also use these definition words. When you look at the LED displays. And then you will also find that the prices of different refresh rate are very different. Why is this?

Let’s mention LCD first. From the summarized points above, we understand that LCD screen clarity is determined by pixel density. Therefore, increasing pixel density can easily achieve 4K or 8K quality, and the price range for different resolutions wouldn’t vary significantly.

However, the situation is entirely different with LED displays. The higher the quality of the LED display, the more expensive it is. The price difference between standard resolution and 4K resolution LED displays can even be several times.

For laymen unfamiliar with LED displays, this fact can be hard to accept. But don’t worry, I’ll help you unravel this mystery.

Firstly, we need to understand what determines the clarity of LED displays.

LED displays’ clarity is mainly determined by three parameters: refresh rate, screen size, and pixel pitch, among which pixel pitch and refresh rate are the most significant factors affecting LED display clarity.

About the optimal pixel pitch for the best viewing effect, you can refer to the introduction in the previous article:What is the Best Viewing Distance for LED? Here, we’ll introduce another crucial parameter—refresh rate.

Determinants of LED Display Refresh Rate

The refresh rate of LED displays is determined by three components: LED power supply, LED lamp bead, and LED ICs, among which the LED IC has the most significant impact on the screen’s refresh rate.

When using a standard IC, its maximum refresh rate can only reach 960Hz. However, using a double-latch IC can increase the refresh rate of the LED display to 1920Hz, commonly known as a high-refresh chip. Moreover, using high-definition advanced PWM ICs can make the refresh rate of LED displays exceed 3840Hz, known as ultra-high-refresh chips.

Low Refresh Rate And High Refresh Rate
Low Refresh Rate And High Refresh Rate

ICs with ultra-high refresh rates must use high-quality gold wire brackets, while those with high or standard refresh rates can choose copper or iron brackets. Therefore, in terms of production cost, there’s a significant difference between them.

LED display manufacturers will choose different grades of ICs according to the customer’s budget and then select LED ICs and LED power supplies that best match the current budget.

LED displays with standard refresh ICs can be made into high-definition LED displays. However, LED displays with Full HD, Ultra HD (also known as 2K ), or 4K resolutions require high-refresh ICs. Additionally, LED displays with higher resolutions require more accessories.

HD FHD QHD UHD
HD FHD QHD UHD

Generally, LED displays with standard refresh rates can be controlled by computers. But for Full HD, Ultra HD, or 4K displays, they need to be equipped with video processors to handle the screen. Moreover, depending on the screen size, there’s a maximum limit to the number of video processors that can be installed. Therefore, when the screen is particularly large, multiple video processors may need to be used simultaneously.

So, when you find the exact same model and size but with vastly different prices, you need to consider whether the materials used for the LED IC (standard refresh, high refresh, or ultra-high refresh) and LED ICs (gold wire bracket, copper bracket, or iron bracket), as well as LED power supplies (220V or 380V), are the same.

How to Choose Between Standard Refresh, High Refresh, and Ultra-High Refresh?

In general, unless otherwise specified, many LED display manufacturers default to using a standard refresh IC to manufacture LED displays. Due to the human eye’s persistence of vision, when the flicker frequency of a screen exceeds 24Hz, the human eye perceives a continuous motion.

Here’s a formula: Screen frame rate = Refresh rate / Video frame rate

For example, if a file with a refresh rate of 960Hz plays a video file with a frame rate of 30, the screen’s frame rate can reach 32Hz, exceeding the human eye’s perceptible 24Hz, resulting in a very clear image.

However, although the human eye cannot perceive the difference, cameras can. Under the camera’s shooting, LED displays with standard refresh ICs will produce obvious Moiré pattern, significantly reducing the photo’s quality.

The LED Display Appears As A Ripple In The Water Captured By The Camera
The LED Display Appears As A Ripple In The Water Captured By The Camera

So, how should we choose between standard refresh, high refresh, and ultra-high refresh?

If we’re only in environments where photography requirements are not high, we can choose LED displays with standard refresh ICs, which are the most cost-effective.

For some places like tourist attractions, art galleries, aquariums, etc., which are meant to attract visitors to take photos, choosing LED displays with standard refresh rates will undoubtedly affect visitors’ moods due to the Moiré pattern in the images. In this case, we need to consider from the customer’s perspective and choose LED displays with high refresh rates to achieve the best shooting effect, thus attracting more people to the venue.

As for ultra-high refresh, it’s generally used in virtual shooting or immersive scenes. Virtual shooting uses high-speed capture cameras and requires ultra-high-refresh LED displays greater than 3840Hz to achieve the best results.

Due to the complexity of LED screens as precise electronic products, customers are inevitably faced with various issues during long-term usage. Sending them back to China for repairs from overseas incurs significant costs and time.

Learning to troubleshoot and address some simple faults can be a great choice, saving both the cost and time of returning the product for repair.

LED screens consist of various components, and any malfunction in these components can lead to issues during usage. Therefore, we have divided the troubleshooting and solutions into six sections to address LED display screen problems systematically.

It’s recommended for engineers with repair needs and customers seeking to address LED screen issues to keep this guide for long-term reference.

We prioritize addressing issues according to severity in this comprehensive guide to LED screen troubleshooting and repair.

Troubleshooting and Repair of LED Screen not Working

I. Circuit Board Short Circuit and Solutions (Highest Priority)

Circuit board shorts need to be detected using a multimeter for resistance, voltage, and short-circuit information. Then, solutions should be applied based on the identified problems. Most circuit board issues cannot be resolved by customers themselves and require sending the LED module back to the manufacturer for repair.

Test The LED Module With A Multimeter
Test The LED Module With A Multimeter

Resistance Detection Method

Issue Identification: Using a multimeter set to resistance mode, test the resistance to ground for each node on the circuit board that fails to light up normally. If the resistance value differs from other nodes, the problem area is determined.
Solution: Check for soldering defects or internal circuit damage at the problematic node. Soldering defects require rework, while internal circuit damage necessitates sending the module back to the manufacturer for repair.

Voltage Detection Method

Issue Identification: Similar to resistance checks, voltage detection involves comparing the voltage to ground for a specific point with that of a normally lit module to identify problematic areas.
Solution: Similar to the resistance detection method.

Led Module Maintenance
Led Module Maintenance

Short Circuit Detection Method

Issue Identification: Set the multimeter to the short-circuit detection mode and check for any short-circuit phenomena. It’s crucial to ensure the circuit board is powered off before short circuit detection to avoid damaging the multimeter.
Solution: Short circuits often result from incorrect circuit layout during LED module production and require replacement by the manufacturer.

Voltage Drop Detection Method

Issue Identification: As ICs comprise numerous miniature components, a current passing through a pin will cause a voltage drop. Abnormal voltage drops can lead to circuit board damage, requiring careful detection.

However, detecting voltage drops has limitations: power must be disconnected during measurement, and high-resistance components cannot be detected.
Solution: Abnormal voltage drops can result from various factors such as overload, internal rusting, or loose contacts, necessitating repairs by the manufacturer.

Check Circuit Board
Check Circuit Board

II. LED Module Faults and Solutions

A. Individual LED Module Fails to Light Up:

  • Observation of LED power and signal line connections.
  • Check if the smart test card can recognize the interface; a blinking red light indicates interface recognition failure. Verify if the LED board shares a common power ground with the test card or if there is a signal-to-ground short causing interface recognition failure.
  • Check for soldering defects or shorts on 74HC245 and corresponding enable (EN) signal input/output pins.
  • If the entire module displays mixed colors or inconsistent colors (with signal input and correct images), it indicates poor contact in signal transmission lines. Reinsert or replace signal transmission lines for further testing. If replacing good transmission lines does not resolve the issue, check for problems with the pinouts on the transmission line interface.

B. Regularly Alternating Rows are Dark during Scanning:

This issue is usually caused by disconnection, soldering defects, or shorts. Check for the following:

  • Check for the above three conditions between the A, B, C, D signal input ports and 245.
  • Check for the above three conditions between the A, B, C, D output ports of 245 and 138.
  • Check for shorts or ground shorts between the A, B, C, D signals. Note: primarily inspect ABCD row signals.

C. One or Several Rows are Dark when Fully Lit:

Check for circuit discontinuity or soldering, or shorts between 138 and 4953.

D. Only Two or Several Rows (usually multiples of 2, regularly) are Lit during Row Scanning:

  • Check for shorts between A, B, C, D signals.
  • Check if 4953 outputs are shorted to other outputs.

E. Single or Multiple Points are Dark when Fully Lit (irregularly):

  • Replace the faulty LED module and relight to check.
  • Measure and observe whether the control pin corresponding to the LED module is shorted to the current row.

F. One or Several Columns are Dark when Fully Lit:

Identify the pins controlling the column on the module and check if the driver IC (74HC595/TB62726, etc.) is connected to the output.

G. Single Point or Column is Bright or Entire Row is Bright and Uncontrolled:

This situation is mainly caused by shorts or IC damage.

  • Check if there is a short circuit between the column and the power ground.
  • Check if there is a short circuit between the row and the positive power supply.
  • Replace the driver IC.

H. Display Confusion, but Signals Output to the Next Panel are Normal:

Check if the STB latch output of 245 is connected to the latch end of the driver IC or if the signal is connected to other lines.

I. Display Confusion, Abnormal Output:

  • Check if the clock CLK latch STB signal is shorted.
  • Check if there is input and output at 245’s clock CLK.
  • Check if the clock signal is shorted to other lines. Note: mainly check the clock and latch signals.

K. Output Issues:

  • Observe if the output interface to the signal output IC is properly connected.
  • Check if the clock latch signal of the output port is normal.
  • Check if the cascaded output data port between the last driver IC is connected to the output interface’s data port or if there is a short circuit.
  • Check for signal shorts or shorts to ground.
  • Inspect the output cable for integrity.

L. LED Module Displays 8 or 16 points with Rows, Columns, or Single Points not Lighting Up, Remaining Lit, or Dimly Lit:

  • Visually inspect corresponding module pins and wires for shorts, soldering defects, or discontinuity.
  • Check if shared connection lines between upper and lower modules in each small area (LED modules are divided into upper and lower zones) are intact. If they are, suspect module damage; if not, directly connect using fine wires to eliminate the issue.
  • Directly measure individual LED lights on a module using a multimeter. If the LEDs light up normally, suspect an internal short circuit between the circuit board and the module; if not, suspect module damage and replace with the same model LED module.
Method for measuring the brightness of a single lamp with a multimeter:

Set the multimeter to the resistance X1 range. If using an analog multimeter, connect the black probe to the positive terminal of the LED, and the red probe to the negative terminal.

If using a digital multimeter, connect the black probe to the negative terminal and the red probe to the positive terminal. When the LED lights up, it proves that the tested lamp is good. Conversely, if the LED does not light up, then the tested lamp is defective.

M. LED Module Displays Several Rows or the Entire Small Area (LED modules are divided into upper and lower zones) not Lighting Up, Remaining Lit, or Dimly Lit:

  • Visually inspect for soldering defects, shorts, or discontinuity in the corresponding row driver, inductor, and integrated circuit. If found, address accordingly.
  • Measure the voltage at the output terminals of each row driver with a multimeter (to measure, connect the black probe to GND and the red probe to measure the voltage of each pin); if normal, suspect a discontinuity between the row output terminal and the corresponding module pin; if not, check if the input of the row driver is normal; if so, suspect row driver damage and replace with the same model; if not, check if the output of the corresponding HC138 is normal; if so, suspect a discontinuity between the output of HC138 and the input of the row driver; if not, suspect HC138 damage.
  • Replace with a good 16P ribbon cable for testing, measure the voltage at pins 1, 2, 3 of HC138 address input, select terminal 4, 5 (active low), 6 (active high), and integrated circuit power supply. If normal, suspect HC138 damage; if not, continue with step (2).
  • Check if the 5V connection line between the two small areas is disconnected; if so, directly connect using the same power supply line (common issue is the entire small area not lighting up or dimly lit).

N. LED Module Displays Small Area (LED modules are divided into upper and lower zones) with No Red or Green:

Visually inspect for soldering defects, shorts, or discontinuity in the corresponding integrated circuit, 26P ribbon cable (1, 2 pins for red signal, 3, 4 pins for green signal), and 5V power supply (replace with a good 26P ribbon cable if necessary).

O. LED Module Displays Small Area (LED modules are divided into upper and lower zones) with the Middle Two Modules Missing Red, Green, or Both Colors are Abnormal from an Abnormal Start to the End:

  • Visually inspect the integrated circuit corresponding to the LED module for soldering defects, shorts, or discontinuity, and handle accordingly based on the situation.
  • Check if the 5V power supply is normal.
  • Measure the voltage at pin 14 of the corresponding HC595 (HC595 measurement should distinguish between red and green integrated circuits, arranged in sequence: red, green (R, G); pin 9 of HC595 is the signal output terminal, pin 14 is the signal input terminal); if normal, suspect HC595 damage (under normal power supply conditions), replace with the same model; if not, check the output terminal voltage of the corresponding HC595, and whether the circuit connection wire is disconnected; if not, suspect HC595 damage, replace with the same model (when replacing the HC595 integrated circuit, pay attention not to disconnect the circuit leads).

P. Continuous Unlit or Abnormal Display:

Check if the signal direction of the first abnormal module’s ribbon cable and power supply line are properly connected. If the LED module’s LEDs are not lit, it indicates improper power line connection or power supply damage; replace the power line or power supply as needed.

If color aberration (mixed colors) occurs, it indicates no signal input to the LED module. Check if the input end of the ribbon cable of the first abnormal LED module is tightly connected. Repeatedly plug and unplug for testing; if the problem persists, replace with a new ribbon cable.

Ⅲ.Troubleshooting Methods

Step 1: Refer to the setting method in the electronic document on the CD to check if the graphics card settings are configured correctly.

Step 2: Check if various interfaces are connected, such as DVI ports, Ethernet ports, serial ports, and the connection between the main control card and the computer’s PCI slot. Since interface cables are specific, there is no possibility of plugging them in incorrectly.

Step 3: The number of LED power supplies needs to match the LED cabinet. Insufficient power supply for the LED display screen can cause flickering when displaying white screens.

Step 4: Check if the green light of the sending card flashes regularly: If it flashes, proceed to Step 6; if not, restart. Before entering the Windows system, check if the green light flashes regularly. If it does, proceed to Step 2. If the problem persists, one of the sending card, graphics card, or DVI cable may be faulty. Replace them respectively and repeat Step 3.

Step 5: Follow the software instructions for settings or reinstall and then set up again until the green light of the sending card flashes. Otherwise, repeat Step 3.

Step 6: Check if the green light (data light) of the receiving card synchronously flashes with the green light of the sending card. If it flashes, proceed to Step 8. Check if the red light (power light) is on. If it is, proceed to Step 7. If not, check if the yellow light (power protection) is on. If it’s not on, check if the power supply is reversed or if there’s no output. If it’s on, check if the power supply voltage is 5V. If so, turn off the power, remove the adapter card and ribbon cable, and try again. If the problem persists, it’s a receiving card failure. Replace the receiving card and repeat Step 6.

Step 7: Check if the network cable is properly connected or too long (must use standard CAT5 cable, with a maximum length shorter than 100 meters without repeaters). Check if the network cable is made according to standards (please refer to the installation and setup manual). If the problem persists, it’s a receiving card failure. Replace the receiving card and repeat Step 6.

Step 8: Check if the power indicator light of the LED screen is on. If it’s not on, proceed to Step 7, and check if the pin definition of the adapter card interface matches the LED module.

Note: After most screens are connected, some screens may not display or show abnormal images. This is generally due to loose RJ45 connectors or the receiving card power not being connected, resulting in no signal transmission. Reconnecting the network cable (or replacing it) or connecting the receiving card power (paying attention to the direction) can usually solve the problem.

Ⅳ.Other Maintenance Methods

Maintenance of LED Dead Pixels (Out-of-Control Points):

After confirming through single-lamp detection that an LED is damaged, select one of the following maintenance methods according to actual needs.

 

Front Maintenance: Use a corresponding screwdriver to remove the fixed mask screws from the front, gently remove the mask, and replace the LED (please follow the LED replacement method below). After replacing the LED and sealing the colloid, restore the original mask, tighten the screws (be careful not to press the LED), and carefully remove any remaining colloid from the LED surface.

Back Maintenance: Use a corresponding screwdriver to remove the screws from the back and place them aside. Unplug the signal cable, but for safety, do not unplug the power connection to prevent accidents. Carefully remove the module from the sheet metal hole, move it to the back of the cabinet, and then follow the front maintenance method to maintain and replace the LED for each individual module.

LED Replacement Method:

Use a sharp tool (such as tweezers) to remove the colloid around the damaged LED, exposing the LED pins. Hold the LED with tweezers in your right hand, control the temperature of the soldering iron at around 40 degrees Celsius with your left hand (excessive temperature will damage the LED), make contact with the solder, and melt it slightly.

Repair LED Lamp Beads
Repair LED Lamp Beads

The dwell time should not exceed 3 seconds. If it exceeds 3 seconds but does not meet the disassembly requirements, it needs to be cooled down and tried again.

Then use tweezers to remove the LED, and then correctly insert the LED into the holes on the PCB circuit board (the long leg of the LED is the positive pole, the short leg is the negative pole, and the “square hole” on the PCB is the positive pin hole of the LED, and the “round hole” is the negative pin hole of the LED), melt a little solder wire, adhere it to the soldering iron tip, adjust the LED direction with tweezers to make it smooth, and solder the LED to the PCB. Seal the LED with the same type of colloid (pH = 7).

This guide provides comprehensive troubleshooting and solutions for various LED display screen issues. It’s intended to assist both engineers and customers in effectively addressing problems and minimizing downtime.

What is SMD (surface mount device)?

SMD (surface mount device) is an electronic device that places components directly on the surface of a PCB. It was originally developed by IBM in the United States. After 20 years of development, it has gradually become popular in the market and has gradually replaced DIP (through-hole dual in-line package) has become the mainstream packaging method for LED modules.

What is SMT (Surface Mount Technology)?

In addition to SMD, there is another word that is similar to it and is easily confused by us – SMT (Surface Mount Technology).

SMT refers to products that use SMD packaging technology. This is significantly different from the DIPT (through-hole dual in-line package technology) we mentioned earlier.

SMT And SMD
SMT And SMD

SMT is suitable for use on more precise objects, while DIPT is suitable for use on larger objects, such as large transformers, high pixel pitch LED modules (that is, LED modules with a pixel pitch greater than 10mm), and heat dissipation power of semiconductors.

SMT Production Line
SMT Production Line

SMT components are typically much smaller than through-hole components and come in a variety of different types depending on the type of application, such as short pins, leads, flat contacts, solder ball (BGA) matrices, or component body terminals.

Through-hole components, on the other hand, usually have longer leads and are therefore very easy to distinguish visually.

SMT production process

First, we need to align the PCB template with the surface of the circuit board, and then use a squeegee to evenly apply the solder paste to ensure that the pads are evenly distributed and have a controlled amount of suitable solder paste.

Secondly, the components are accurately installed into their respective locations on the board using a pick-and-place machine or manual placement. Note that when operating manually, be sure to grasp the precise control position. If you find that it is not completely aligned, you can gently move the circuit board to avoid misalignment. Because a misaligned circuit board will eventually cause damage to the circuit board.

Third, the circuit board passes through a reflow oven, which exposes the circuit board to infrared radiation, thereby increasing the temperature of the solder paste. When the solder paste reaches the melting point, solder joints will form and stick firmly to the circuit board.

Next, an AOI machine or automatic optical inspection machine is used to conduct multiple quality checks on the circuit board. The current inspection is completed by visually inspecting the board, such as component alignment and checking for solder bridges.

Fourth, use low-voltage voltage to conduct a power-on test on the circuit board to check whether the lines and solder joints inside the circuit board can pass current to ensure that the circuit board can be used normally.

Introduction to the advantages of SMT

Manufacturing more precise PCB boards

Since SMD components have shorter or even no pins, more precise PCB boards can be manufactured using SMT. Taking LED modules as an example, it is very difficult to use through-hole insertion technology to produce LED modules with a pixel pitch of less than 10mm, let alone LED modules with smaller pixel pitches such as P2 and P1.

Efficient assembly

The SMT assembly process is purely automated, and the error rate is less than one in 100,000. During the automatic PCB assembly process, it is safe and fast, maximizing the assembly efficiency.

Use stable solder connections

SMD components ensure a secure hold on the circuit board. This is because each pole has two pads used by the manufacturer. Even smaller electronic PCB components can be placed. Moreover, when the machine operates the PCB, it is more stable and can better protect the PCB from being interfered by external factors.

Reliable processing

To make surface mount devices, some manufacturers use LCP, a high-performance plastic. It ensures optimal dimensional stability and precise grid alignment. The substance is highly heat-resistant to solder, ensuring a smooth, consistent and reliable SMD connection method.

In addition, in order to ensure the smooth progress of PCB services and reduce rework costs, AOI inspection will be performed after the surface mount installation is completed. This inspection equipment is placed at the exit of the reflow soldering.

Long term tolerance

The machine undergoes rigorous endurance testing before leaving the factory, so it can run at high frequency for a long time.

Backlight Crystallizer
Backlight Crystallizer

Components needed when packaging SMD

Discrete SMD resistors

There are two basic variations of surface mount resistors:

Thick Film:

Unlike axial resistors where a resistive film is deposited on a circular core, thick film surface mount resistors are made by masking the resistive film on the surface of a flat, high-purity aluminum oxide substrate. The resistance value was calculated by changing the resistive slurry composition before screening and laser trimming the film after screening.

Thin Film:

Tin film resistors have solderable terminals on the sides and a protective layer on top. They have a resistive element on a ceramic substrate. On ceramic substrates, the block has an adhesive layer, a nickel barrier underplating, and an impregnated or electroplated solder overlay. The nickel barrier is critical to maintaining the solderability of the terminals.

Network resistance (RA/RN)

Network Resistance
Network Resistance

A network resistor is composed of multiple resistors integrated together, so it is also called a resistor. When packaged into an integrated circuit, it can also be called an integrated resistor.

In the network resistor’s advanced ceramic chip, there are metal electrodes at each end to connect the thick film resistive elements. Typically the chip will contain multiple resistors of similar size at the same time, making it ideal for digital memory circuits.

Chip capacitor

Chip Capacitor
Chip Capacitor

Chip capacitors are also called multilayer chip ceramic capacitors (MLCC) or monolithic capacitors, which are in the shape of rectangular blocks. It is a ceramic chip formed by stacking ceramic dielectric diaphragms with printed electrodes (internal electrodes) in a staggered manner, and then sintering them at a high temperature in one go.

Then a metal layer (external electrode) is sealed on both ends of the chip to form a monolithic-like structure, hence the name monolithic capacitor. It is an energy storage device, and the capacitance unit is Farad (F).

Chip inductor

Chip Inductor
Chip Inductor

Chip inductors, like chip capacitors, have many names, such as power inductors, high current inductors, surface mount high power inductors, etc.

Its main function is to convert electrical energy into magnetic energy and store it as a basic surface mount component. The inductance unit is H. There are two types of chip inductors: with magnetic cover and without magnetic cover. They are mainly composed of insulator and enameled wire.

SMD transformer

Transformers
Transformers

A transformer is a type of AC voltage that is manufactured based on Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Although SMD transformers are different from conventional transformers in terms of voltage, current, winding capacitance, etc., since the overall structure and principle are the same, we will not make more detailed distinctions.

Diodes and transistors

Diode And Triode
Diode And Triode

Diodes are composed of two semiconductor materials, have unidirectional conductivity, and are polar components. Therefore, the current entering from the positive electrode encounters negligible resistance. But if it’s the other way around, and current enters through the negative pole, the resistance is high.

Photodiode Equivalent Circuit
Photodiode Equivalent Circuit

The triode is a more complex component with three electrodes: emitter, base and collector. Its main function is to amplify weak electrical signals and at the same time keep the output voltage of the circuit stable in SMD.

Circuit Control Diagram Of Triode
Circuit Control Diagram Of Triode

Chip integrated circuit

Integrated Circuit
Integrated Circuit

SMD integrated circuits combine components such as diodes, capacitors, inductors, and resistors on small semiconductors called integrated circuits (ICs).

Crystal oscillator

Crystal Oscillators
Crystal Oscillators

A crystal oscillator is a two-terminal quartz device with a silver coating on it. Their function generates the oscillation frequency and thus the device’s clock signal.

No matter where we install the LED display, viewing distance is always one of the factors that need to be considered. Many customers who don’t know much about LED displays may not understand why the viewing distance is so important? You may even be confused by some salespeople using terms such as “minimum pixel pitch” and “highest resolution”.

This article will provide the most comprehensive analysis of “pixel pitch”, “best viewing distance” and other information.

What is pixel pitch?

Pixel pitch is a parameter unique to LEDs. Mainly refers to the distance between the lamp beads in the LED module, usually in millimeters. For example, for P8 LED modules, it means that the distance between the module lamp beads and the lamp beads is 8mm.

Why doesn’t LCD need to care about viewing distance, but LED display does?

Speaking of LED displays, you may think of another one – LCD, but when we buy LCD products, we rarely mention the viewing distance. Why is this?

This is because the LCD is composed of liquid crystal material, which itself does not emit light and requires a backlight to display the screen. Every time, the whole piece needs to be cut according to the set size.

Since LCD is in a liquid crystal molecular state, the difference is completely invisible to the naked eye, so we don’t need to pay too much attention to its viewing distance.

P1-P5 LED Module
P1-P5 LED Module

But the LED display screen is different. It is made up of many small LED modules. There are various models of single LED modules, such as P2, P3, P4, P5 and so on. The pixel pitch between the lamp beads of each model will gradually increase with different models.

For example, taking the P2 model LED module as an example, the pixel pitch between each lamp bead is 2mm. Similarly, for the P5 model LED module, the pixel pitch is 5mm, and so on.

The pixel pitch between the lamp beads leads to the viewing distance that is the focus of our article.

Why is the LED viewing distance as important?

The pixel pitch of LED module lamp beads is closely related to the viewing distance. Generally, the viewing distance of LED module lamp beads is 1-1.5 times the pixel pitch value, and the unit is meters.

For example, if a 2mm LED module is spliced into 1 square meter, the viewing distance will be 1-1.5 times the original, that is, 2 to 3 meters; if it is a 5mm LED module, the viewing distance will be between 5–8 meters. Therefore, the larger the pixel pitch of the LED module, the farther the viewing distance will be.

However, when actually calculating the viewing distance, we also need to pay attention to the splicing size of the screen. Why do say that? Here is a specific table

Viewing Distance and Recommended Model Table
AreaViewing DistanceRecommended Model
≤5㎡3-5mP3,P4,P5
≤10㎡6-10mP6,P8
20-50㎡>20mP8,P10
50-100㎡>50mP10

From the table, we summarize the following points:

If it is an outdoor LED display larger than 50 square meters, it is recommended to use P6 or above modules. In this case, the visual distance will be further, reaching a visual distance of 50–100 meters.

If it is an outdoor LED display screen less than 50 square meters, it is recommended to choose LED modules according to actual needs.

If it is an indoor LED display larger than 10 square meters, it is recommended to use LED modules above P3, which will make the price more affordable.

If it is an indoor LED display less than 10 square meters, it is recommended to choose according to the actual viewing distance.

Is the smaller the pixel pitch, the better?

The answer is negative. If we blindly pursue the smallest pixel pitch, our costs will continue to rise.

At present, one of the unresolved pain points of LED displays is the price issue, which is particularly prominent in small-pitch LED displays. The smaller the pixel pitch of the LED display, the price increases exponentially. Take the P2 small-pitch LED display as an example. For example, if a 30,000 CNY P2 indoor small-pitch LED display is replaced by a 1mm pixel pitch LED display, the price will instantly soar to 100,000 CNY.

When viewed from a slightly farther distance (for example, 2.5 meters), the display effect is actually not much different. Only when viewed from a close distance, the P1 indoor small-pitch LED display will have a more detailed display than the P2 indoor small-pitch LED display.

Optimal Viewing Distance Pixel Pitch
Optimal Viewing Distance Pixel Pitch

If it were not for the pursuit of the ultimate visual experience, considering the economic cost, it is obvious that P2 is more cost-effective than P1.

At present, extremely small pitch (less than 1mm) LED displays, also called micro LED displays, were very popular in the past few years. At its peak, there were at least 30 micro LED display manufacturers.

But now, most manufacturers have successively removed micro LED displays from the shelves, and currently there are less than 5 micro LED display manufacturers still producing and selling.

What are the difficulties currently faced by micro-LED displays?

Technical difficulty

For micro LED displays smaller than 1mm, very high-precision machines are required to manufacture them, and the price is very expensive. At present, only a few companies in the industry, such as TCL, Samsung, and BOE, have machines for making micro LED displays. Most of the manufacturers on the market that claim to be capable of making micro LED displays actually turn to these companies for processing.

Cost is too high

Because it is extremely difficult to manufacture, it is expensive to manufacture. This has also led to many people being unwilling to pay for its exorbitant price. The market response has not been high and sales have been in a sluggish state.

The advantages are not obvious

In fact, the human eye does not have strong perception of LED displays smaller than 1mm. In other words, people cannot distinguish the difference between 1mm, 0.9mm and 0.8mm very well. Therefore, although manufacturing an LED display screen smaller than 1mm can prove its technical capabilities, it will not greatly improve image quality, performance, market recognition, etc.

What pixel pitch has the best viewing distance?

Maybe minimum pitch LED display is not the best solution for us, so what kind of pixel pitch has the best viewing distance?

First of all, we need to know that the so-called optimal viewing distance is actually subjective. In other words, what we call “best” is actually a general formula summarized by the industry over many years, and it may still vary from person to person.

 

Here we have 2 different calculation methods for your reference.

Method one:

View Distance From LED Wall
View Distance From LED Wall

OVD(in m)=2 * commercial pixel pitch(in mm)

Your ideal pixel pitch (in mm) is OVD (in m) / 2

Note: OVD is the abbreviation of optimal visual distance

Method Two:

visual acuity distance

Visual acuity distance (also called “retinal distance”) is calculated using the formula for a person with 20/20 vision viewing LED video without distinction between pixel pitches:

The visual distance formula is shown in the figure below

Visual Acuity Distance Formula
Visual Acuity Distance Formula

10x rule

The 10x rule is a shorthand method for quickly calculating visual distance estimates.

10x rule formula
Pixel pitch (mm) * 10 times = total viewing distance (feet)

What is the Mandalorian LED Wall?

This is an immersive LED wall spliced together through virtual production of LED displays. The entire immersive LED wall is a semicircular LED video wall with a 270° viewing angle, 20 inches high (approximately 6.1 meters) and 75 inches (approximately 22.9 meters) in diameter. More than 50% of the first season of “The Mandalorian” was shot this way.

The Mandalorian Shooting Scene
The Mandalorian Shooting Scene

Why use a Mandalorian wall instead of a green screen?

We all know that many special effects scenes nowadays are indispensable for shooting with green screen. It is mainly to facilitate film and television editors to intercept and synthesize the pictures later. This approach is simple in the early stage, but requires a lot of work in the later stage.

The Mandalorian filming set
The Mandalorian filming set

Especially when filming a TV series, it is often not one or two episodes, but more than 20, more than 40, or even more than 100 episodes. Such a large amount of work will take up a lot of time in the later editing and synthesis.

Traditional Green Screen Shooting, Green Light
Traditional Green Screen Shooting, Green Light

If we can directly integrate existing scenes into the shooting, this will greatly reduce the processing time of the film in the later stage. In this way, the film that may originally take half a year to complete can be completed in only one and a half months.

LED Walls Are Integrated Into The Shooting Scene
LED Walls Are Integrated Into The Shooting Scene

How did virtual production of LED displays help the filming of “The Mandalorian”?

Earlier we briefly mentioned the help of virtual production LED display for shooting, but for those who have never been exposed to virtual production LED screen, they will definitely be curious about how this virtual production LED display screen works? Why can the film of “The Mandalorian” be so realistic?

With questions, we consulted Richard Bluff from the UK. He has served as the visual effects synthesis supervisor in many classic film and television works, including “The Mandalorian”.

He told us that the reason “The Mandalorian” achieves such good visual effects is because the scenes in the film are combined with motion capture volumes on LEDs.

Curved Mandalorian LED Video Wall
Curved Mandalorian LED Video Wall

The motion capture studio can clearly create the location and movement of the camera, and then multiple 3D background materials created by ILM (Industrial Light and Magic) are played on the LED wall, edited in real time during the shooting process, and processed through NVIDIA’s GPU Perform systematic high-quality effect tracking and perspective correction.

This perspective parallax relationship is very close to the “holographic imaging platform” (Holodeck), so some people also call it the “LED parallax image sense”.

The whole process not only greatly reduced the post-production editing work, but also produced more precise and beautiful scenes under the light adjustment of the studio, allowing the actors to be immersed in the scene and obtain the best effect.

Due to its success in the imaging of “The Mandalorian”, ILM is further improving and researching this end-to-end virtual production approach and naming it ILM StageCraft.

Summary of the technical background of The Mandalorian

The Mandalorian LED wall has a maximum brightness of 1800 nits

The Mandalorian LED wall uses a high-strength die-cast aluminum box and high-quality LED lamp beads, which can maintain high brightness and are durable. Its maximum brightness can reach 1800 nits, which is 2–3 times that of many indoor LED displays, so it can feel very bright when used indoors.

LED Wall In The Movie Application
LED Wall In The Movie Application

Some people may be worried about whether problems will occur if it is run at maximum brightness for a long time. Here we will deduce it.

At peak brightness, assuming our camera shoots at 24 fps using a standard 180 degree shutter,
So, 180-(24*0.5)=168, means that the LED can produce an intensity of 168 candelas, which is equivalent to the intensity of f/8 3⁄4 at 800 ISO.

At this intensity, the Mandalorian LED wall is completely fine. In addition, we generally do not always use the maximum brightness for playback, which will affect the effects of other lights in the studio.

The Mandalorian used a full-frame Ultra Vista 1.65x anamorphic lens

For non-professional photographers, they may not know what the concept of the 2.37:1 aspect ratio captured by the Ultra Vista 1.65x anamorphic lens means. Here I will briefly introduce it.

Our common aspect ratios usually include: 1.89:1 (17:9), 1.78:1 (16:9), 1.2:1 (6:5), 1.33:1 (4:3), 1.5 :1 (3:2), 2:1, 2.4:1 and 1:1. Different aspect ratios can match different active sensor areas.

This is a 1.5:1 image from a full-frame camera with crop marks of 1.78:1 and 1.89:1
This is a 1.5:1 image from a full-frame camera with crop marks of 1.78:1 and 1.89:1

Have you noticed a few unfamiliar ratios, such as 1.89:1, 1.78:1, which are different from the familiar 17:9 or 16:9. In fact, they refer to the aspect ratio during screening, only However, we are generally familiar with using ratios in parentheses.

Usually the finished film standard we deliver is 1.89:1 (17:9) established by the “Digital Cinema Initiative” for “flat” or spherical theater release films, but when the cinema produces a Digital Cinema Print (DCP), the projection (Screen mask) cannot fully display the entire screen, so it will be ultimately cropped to a 1.85:1 ratio.

The maximum film ratio that an ordinary camera can achieve is 1.89:1 (17:9). If you want to exceed this value, reach 2:1, or even 2.4:1, then you need to use an anamorphic lens or a spherical lens.

2020 Collection Of 8 Issues Of American Cinematographer Magazine
2020 Collection Of 8 Issues Of American Cinematographer Magazine

Panavision’s full-frame Ultra Vista 1.65x anamorphic lens was used when filming “The Mandarin”. Its anamorphic compression allowed the LF’s 1.44:1 aspect ratio to be used to create a 2.37:1 aspect ratio, which is very close to 2.4:1. , so only a slight cropping is required (see American Cinematographer, February 2020 magazine for more details).

Semicircular studio 270° immersive space

A 270° semicircular studio with a height of 6 meters and a diameter of about 23 meters was built. A total of 1326 LED modules were used. After splicing, the viewing angle of the LED wall reached 180°, which means that it can be viewed from any angle. , you can experience the ultimate high-definition visual effects.

270 Degree Immersion Mandalorian LED Wall
270 Degree Immersion Mandalorian LED Wall

The pixel pitch of the LED module is 2.84mm, and the chip uses an 8K high-refresh IC, which completely avoids moiré patterns generated during the shooting process.

132 independent LED panels can form a 360° fully enclosed scene

There are also two hanging flat panels 5.4 meters long and 6 meters wide composed of 132 independent LED modules, which can be combined with the semicircular studio in front to form a 360° fully enclosed scene.

Telephoto lens enables easy zooming of images

Since it is necessary to frequently switch between lenses of different focal lengths during the shooting process, if an ordinary camera is used, the LED wall of the Mandalorian will not be able to focus during shooting. The Panavision Ultra Vistas lens can perfectly solve this problem.

The Mandalorian Shoting Scenes
The Mandalorian Shoting Scenes

The 2.3 aperture of the Panavision Ultra Vistas is similar to the 0.8-stop aperture in the Super 35. It contains Ultra Vista lenses from 50mm to 180mm, ranging from T2 to T2.8, and the DOP is exposed around T2.5-T3.5, thus completing the entire shooting process perfectly.

How much does The Mandalorian LED wall cost?

Because it is a professionally customized product in conjunction with a top film and television team, the cost of The Mandalorian LED wall is very high. ILM and Golem Creations have revealed that the Mandalorian LED wall is conservatively estimated at around $100 million.

However, what we need to know is that the shooting scene of Mandalorian is not only the LED wall, but also the Unreal Engine system, cameras, shooting scripts and so on. According to Callum Walker, filming manager of CVP, one of the partners, the cost of filming alone is as high as $1.5 million.

Mandalorian LED Wall vs LED Video Wall

Resolution

Most LED video walls generally have 2K resolution and can reach 4K resolution, which is a relatively high-end product. The Mandalorian LED wall has reached 8K resolution, which is the limit that LED video walls can currently achieve.

Viewing angle

LED video walls on the market generally have a viewing angle of 170 degrees, while the Mandalorian LED wall reaches an astonishing 180 degrees, which means that it is very clear no matter what angle it is viewed from.

Brightness

Most LED video walls used indoors have a brightness between 800-1200nit. There are only a handful of LED walls like this that can reach a brightness of 1800nit.

Shape

Most of the LED video walls we see are flat and quadrilateral, while the Mandalorian LED wall is semicircular. From the perspective of splicing difficulty, semicircular splicing is much more difficult than flat splicing.

Origin of the term “Jumbotron”

Jumbotron was initially a trademark registered by the Japanese company Sony. At the same time, Sony was also the developer of the world’s first giant display, which was manufactured and used for the first time during the 1985 World Expo held in Tokyo, Japan.

The World's First Jumbotron Made By SONY
The World’s First Jumbotron Made By SONY

Current meaning of Jumbotron

By 2001, sixteen years later, Sony had exited the large-screen business. Now, the term “Jumbotron” has become a generic term used to describe any large or giant screen.

SONY JUMBOTRON
SONY JUMBOTRON

A Jumbotron is a type of large screen or display used to show videos, images, or other types of content. It may also be applied in some programs, such as frameworks like Bootstrap.

Due to its exceptionally large size, giant screens are suitable for venues with high ceilings and high levels of foot traffic, such as sports stadiums, concert venues, and other large public spaces where people gather to watch live events.

How do jumbotrons work?

The internal structure of jumbotrons is quite complex, but the principle of operation is simple. Jumbotrons available on the market today are made up of LED screens, which are composed of numerous LED modules.

Workers Are Installing Jumbotrons
Workers Are Installing Jumbotrons

Inside each LED module, there are various small components, such as LED modules, LED power supplies, receiving cards, sending cards, and so on.

These modules are controlled by a machine called a video processor, which centrally processes the video signals. This ensures that the display quality remains consistently clear regardless of the screen’s size.

What are the benefits of using jumbotrons?

Broader Audience Reach

Jumbotrons are typically installed at heights exceeding 30 meters, allowing more viewers in the vicinity to see the spectacular images displayed on them, thus reaching a wider audience.

Outdoor Jumbotron Are Playing Advertisements
Outdoor Jumbotron Are Playing Advertisements

Clearer Display of Content

while smaller screens can be forced to display as much content as jumbotrons, the content displayed on small screens will inevitably be proportionally reduced and may not be as clear. In contrast, giant screens can display content clearly, enhancing the audience’s visual experience.

Outdoor Jumbotron Is Showing A Singer Singing
Outdoor Jumbotron Is Showing A Singer Singing

Increased Revenue for Advertisers

Since jumbotrons can be divided into different zones for displaying content, advertisers can place ads in prominent areas, increasing their exposure and enhancing brand recall among viewers, resulting in a win-win situation.

Outdoor Jumbotron Are Playing Advertisement
Outdoor Jumbotron Are Playing Advertisement

Displaying More Content

In any case, the bigger the screen, the more content it can display. In this way, we can flexibly match regional content and display the information that can capture the audience’s hearts in a more prominent form, thereby maintaining the enthusiasm and participation of the audience.

A Giant Screen In New York's Times Square
A Giant Screen In New York’s Times Square

Long-term Durability

Jumbotrons are composed of environmentally friendly and durable LED screens, surrounded by heavy-duty steel structures, making them capable of lasting 7–8 years without any issues. Even after 7–8 years, if some screens develop faults, they can be dismantled and replaced with new modules.

Common Applications of jumbotrons

The characteristics of jumbotrons determine their application scenarios, which are ideally suited for spacious areas with dense crowds. Here are some common applications of jumbotrons :

Sports Industry

Conceptual Image Of The Large LED Screen At Four Winds Field
Conceptual Image Of The Large LED Screen At Four Winds Field

The jumbotron is an indispensable and important facility in the sports industry. Just imagine, if you are sitting at the back of the stadium with a very small screen in front of you, you can’t even see the stadium clearly. You can also imagine its popularity and scale.

Through the giant screen, every move on the field is presented to the audience. No matter where you sit, you can experience the refreshing feeling brought by the giant screen. That’s what the jumbotron is for.

Entertainment Events

Jumbotrons Are Used As Background Walls At Car Shows
Jumbotrons Are Used As Background Walls At Car Shows

All large-scale entertainment events are indispensable without the participation of the jumbotron. Because the giant screen is an important background board for entertainment events, it can provide different background images according to the atmosphere of the event, thereby well promoting the atmosphere on the field and achieving stunning visual effects.

Shop Mall

Shopping Malls Use Giant Screens To Display Advertisements
Shopping Malls Use Giant Screens To Display Advertisements

The jumbotron is an important marketing tool to attract the attention of the masses. It allows the masses to be attracted by wonderful advertising images or promotional information from a long distance, thereby promoting better conversions.

Some places have even become local tourist attractions due to the installation of large giant screens, attracting many tourists to come for sightseeing.

Tourist Attractions

Large Ceiling LED Display Mounted On The Top Of The Playground
Large Ceiling LED Display Mounted On The Top Of The Playground

As we mentioned earlier, some supermarkets can become popular on the Internet through jumbotrons and become tourist attractions, not to mention a specialized tourism industry. If jumbotrons are cleverly integrated into tourist attractions, it can not only bring an extraordinary experience, but also enhance the sense of fashion and technology in tourist attractions.

Cost of jumbotrons

According to publicly available information online, Sony initially installed the first batch of jumbotrons at the former Tampa Stadium in Florida. The screen was 30 feet long with a visual resolution of only 240*192 pixels. This screen was phased out after about 5 years due to its inability to keep up with technological advancements.

Before discontinuing production in 2001, Sony also installed a jumbotron at the SkyDome in Ontario, which cost a staggering $17 million.

Today, with the rapid advancement of LED display screen technology, a giant screen that once cost $17 million can now be obtained for approximately $3 million. If lower-end materials are used, the cost may be even lower.

Based on some past cases, a jumbotron used for high school football fields may cost around $20,000 to $30,000. Larger screens, such as the Carthage Jumbotron in Texas, are estimated to cost between $60,000 and $85,000 for construction and installation.

Meanwhile, jumbotrons used in professional sports venues or large-scale concerts may cost millions or even tens of millions of dollars.

For instance, the AT&T Stadium in Arlington, Texas, spent $40 million to build the broadcast screen. The SoFI Jumbotron manufactured by Samsung is the world’s largest video scoreboard, and although its cost is undisclosed, we estimate it to be at least $400 million.

The final cost of giant screens is highly complex and depends on factors such as the model of the display, the size and resolution requirements for installation, the complexity of the LED control system, and the location and installation requirements.

Rent a jumbotron or buy it?

Generally, jumbotrons are customized for long-term use and are rarely rented out. We consulted several giant LED screen rental companies on the market, and they provided quotes ranging from $4,000 to $35,000, depending on factors such as the size, resolution, and application scenario (indoor or outdoor) of the giant screen to be rented.

For short-term use, you can consider leasing, but if it is used frequently, this approach is unwise. The main reason is that the price of direct purchase may be more cost-effective than the price of frequent rental.

If you want a quick price estimate for Jumbotron, please contact us and our professional quotation team will provide you with a free quote.

Since the existence of humanity, darkness has been the obstacle on the path to happiness for all humans and the source of human fear.

The invention of electric light became a decisive step in overcoming darkness, liberating humanity from the night completely. At this point, some people began to ponder a question: How should we judge the strength of light?

The most direct method is to rely on the human eye to judge the strength of light. However, this only provides us with a bunch of adjectives, such as dim, faint, dimly lit, bright, dazzling, and so on.

This ambiguous information can vary from person to person, making it difficult for us to compare when needed. Therefore, we urgently need to provide a quantitative description of the strength of light, allowing light sources to have their own units and definitions.

The initial definition of light intensity

About two hundred years ago, people found a rough way to measure the strength of light, called the foot-candle:

It is the energy density of light gathered on one square inch of surface when observing a one-foot-long candle (about one pound in weight) burning horizontally.

This rough measurement method laid the foundation for the “whale oil” adopted by the Urban Gas Lighting Act in Britain in 1860, as well as later standard light sources such as vegetable oil lamps and pentane lamps.

Improvements in luminous units

However, with the development of science, the rough measurement method could not adapt to the increasing variety of luminous objects. So, in 1948, at the Ninth International Conference on Weights and Measures, it was decided to adopt a blackbody at the temperature of the solidification point of platinum as the standard for luminous intensity, and the candela was established as the new unit of luminous intensity.

Plane Angle And Solid Angle
Plane Angle And Solid Angle

During its use, it was found that the previous definition had significant errors. Ultimately, at the Sixteenth International Conference on Weights and Measures in 1979, it was decided to adopt the current new definition. The new definition states:

The candela is the luminous intensity of a monochromatic radiation source emitting at a frequency of 540 x 10^12 Hz in a given direction, with a radiation intensity of 1/683 W/sr in that direction.

By this point, many of you might already be confused by a bunch of unit names. Don’t worry, let’s take a closer look at them one by one.

What is a Candela?

Keen-eyed readers may have noticed that the English name for “candela” is the same as “candle.” As mentioned earlier, candlepower was previously used as the unit of luminous intensity, and later it was standardized to use the candela (abbreviated as cd) as the unit.

Photopic (black Line) And Scotopic (green Line) Luminosity Functions
Photopic (black Line) And Scotopic (green Line) Luminosity Functions

Candela refers to the luminous flux (the physical quantity of optical power) emitted by a light source within unit solid angle in a specified direction.

Candlepower, lumen, and candela conversion formula

1 candlepower = 1 lumen = 1 candela multiplied by steradian, i.e., 1 fc = 1 lm = 1 cd * sr

We often see another optical physics unit that appears as frequently as the candela – the nit. What’s the relationship between the two?

What is a Nit?

A nit is a unit specifically used to measure brightness. 1 nit = 1 cd/m², so it can be considered that a nit  is an old term for measuring the strength of light, while candela per square meter (cd/m²) is a new term.

What is the difference between Candela and Nit?

From the above formula, we can see that the two are equivalent. However, strictly speaking, there are differences between them. The candela is a unit of light intensity, while the nit is a unit of brightness.

Additionally, the unit of light intensity is a standard measurable unit based on physical definitions, but the unit of brightness is only a subjective measure of light by the human eye. In simple terms, light intensity can be scientifically measured, while brightness is measured by the eye’s perception of light.

Lumen, Candela, And Nit's Relationship
Lumen, Candela, And Nit’s Relationship

What is the relationship between Nit and Lumen?

When we mention nit, we often mention lumen as well. So, what is the relationship between them? The lumen is the unit of luminous flux, representing the radiant power that the eye can perceive. 1 nit is approximately equal to 0.093 lumens per square foot.

Let’s further understand the relationship between them through a hypothetical example.

Suppose there is a screen with dimensions of 2 meters by 1.5 meters, with a screen gain factor of 1.2, and the measured luminous flux is 2000 lumens. Then, using a formula for converting nit to lumen:

Nit = Lumen × Screen Gain / (Factor × Screen Size)

We can calculate that the final projected image would be 2000 * 1.2 / (0.635 * 2 * 3.1415926 * 2 * 1.5) = 200.51 nits.

How does understanding nits help in daily life?

We’ve discussed so many conversions related to different photometric units to help us choose products with better performance while being more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. Because the market is full of mixed offerings, some merchants may claim 8000 nits, 12000 nits, or even 20000 nits just to attract customers, while in reality, they may not even reach 5000 nits.

Is higher nit better?

Merchants keep pushing for higher nits, but is higher nit always better? The answer is no.
Indeed, higher nits are more suitable for outdoor use, but obviously excessively high nits can affect heat dissipation. Let’s consider a common scenario we encounter in daily life: when we use our phones in bright sunlight, we often need to adjust the screen brightness to the maximum to see incoming messages clearly.

However, shortly after, the phone will start heating up, forcing us to either find a cooler spot or quickly finish our conversation.

Therefore, excessively high nits only lead to increased prices, and in reality, we don’t operate devices under such high nits for long periods. Not only does this significantly shorten the lifespan of the device, but it may also require us to reduce nit usage due to issues like overheating and overly bright screens.

What is the ideal nit level?

Smartphones: 200 nits indoors, 400 nits outdoors

When using a smartphone indoors, the typical brightness is usually between 200–300 nits, but when outdoors, it’s usually necessary to increase it to 400–500 nits; otherwise, you may need to find a shaded area to view the screen clearly.

Of course, if you often read outdoors, it’s recommended to switch to a device with an e-ink display. Such devices perform exceptionally well in bright light and are very power-efficient.

Computers/Laptops: 200–500 nits

Computers and laptops are typically used indoors, so they don’t require very high nit levels, unless you’re gaming. According to game developers’ evaluations, in large 3D games, computers or laptops with high nits or HDR (high dynamic range) display quality provide a more perfect gaming experience.

Televisions: 200–2000+ nits

Most televisions on the market today are LCD or plasma televisions that range from 200 to 500 nits. However, some ultra-high-definition 4K and 8K televisions can reach 4000 nits or more.

Large Outdoor Advertisements: 4000–10000 nits

In contrast to indoor applications, large outdoor advertisements are used under intense sunlight for extended periods. If the nit level is too low, the content may become completely unreadable. For example, most outdoor LED displays on the market have nits exceeding 4000, and some larger-pitch (such as P10, P16) outdoor LED displays can even reach 7000 or 10000 nits.

In order to help everyone better understand various photometric units, here are some physical formulas to help explain the relationship between units, lumens and brightness:

 Relationship between nits, lumens, and luminance:

Nits to Lumens Conversion:

Lumens= Nits ×Display Area (in ㎡)

Lumens to Nits Conversion:

Nits=Nits×Display Area (in ㎡)

Luminance Calculation (in nits):

Luminance(innits)=Brightness (in nits)/π×(Distance from Display)²

Luminance Calculation (in candelas per square meter):

Luminance = Brightness (in cd/㎡)×Reflectivity

Through the above formula conversion, I believe you can have a deeper understanding of various photometric units.

The church is a place where believers worship God. It is also an important place for believers to pray together, talk about the Bible, and share experiences. This humble act of worship expresses the believers’ supreme respect for God and infinite praise for God.

It is true that people are hopeless in front of God. Only under God’s protection can we grow healthier and happier.

As the place closest to God, the degree of care we put into the design and decoration of the church determines our pious attitude towards God.We need to devote more energy to the decoration of the church to achieve the most satisfactory results.

As the most devout believer in God, I will discuss the 10 most beautiful church design and decoration cases in the world that I have come across over the years. I hope you can find the most suitable church design and decoration plan from my article. At the end of the article, there will also be some tips for improving church decoration. May God bless you.

The 10 most Beautiful Church Decoration Cases in the World

Saemoonan Church

Saemoonan Church
Saemoonan Church

The Saemoonan Church in South Korea is very attractive from its appearance. The three-dimensional letter “H” that looks like an inner arch is also like a Holy Mother coming to the world, opening her arms to welcome everyone who comes to worship.

The Lights Are Like Stars Leading The Way
The Lights Are Like Stars Leading The Way

The wide staircase can lead directly to the second floor, and there are dots of lights on the wall, indicating the correct guidance for the confused world.

Saemoonan Church Internal Overview
Saemoonan Church Internal Overview

The entire interior uses warm lighting, combined with wooden seats and podiums, to give people a natural, simple, warm and flat feeling, allowing people who step into it to feel a sacred atmosphere.

Saemoonan Church Give People An Inner Feeling
Saemoonan Church Give People An Inner Feeling

The auditorium spans the third to fifth floors of the building and uses a large amount of wood to give people an inner feeling.

Chiesa del Buon Ladrone

Chiesa Del Buon Ladrone Church
Chiesa Del Buon Ladrone Church

The Chiesa del Buon Ladrone in Italy is a pure white chapel with an extremely simple appearance. There is a glass incision in the middle of the church that runs throughout, as if the church is split in half, which is very rich in design concepts.

It's like the church was split in the middle
It’s like the church was split in the middle

The interior of the church can accommodate 300 people. The altar stone is a whole piece of granite without excessive carving, and is decorated with wooden seats. It seems to have no rules, but in fact it blends just right.

Our Lady of Lourdes Rivonia Catholic Church

Our Lady of Lourdes Rivonia Catholic Church
Our Lady of Lourdes Rivonia Catholic Church
Our Lady of Lourdes Rivonia Catholic Church, located in Livonia, Sandton, South Africa, is the church most frequently visited by believers in Sandton, South Africa. The church adopts an octagonal light-colored architectural style, with slender concrete columns reaching up to the skylight inside, thereby enhancing the brightness inside the church.
The Congregation Is Listening At Lourdes Church
The Congregation Is Listening At Lourdes Church

A 4.5*1.5m church LED display is placed on both sides above the altar. When preaching is needed, the church LED display will display relevant images or information to immerse the believers in it.

Valer Kirke Church

Valer Kirke Church
Valer Kirke Church

The Valer Kirke Church in Norway uses a large amount of wood to form the entire building, which is pure and sacred.

Valer Kirke Internal Overview
Valer Kirke Internal Overview

Inside the church, the walls adopt a symmetrical composition, and a large number of oblique cuts and mirror elements are reserved.

The Interior Of The Church Was Designed And Constructed Using A Large Number Of Symmetrical Compositions
The Interior Of The Church Was Designed And Constructed Using Many Symmetrical Compositions

During the day, light shines in from various angles, and those who are illuminated will feel full of strength, as if their body and mind have been baptized, and their soul has been sublimated.

Saint Charbel Church

Saint Charbel Church
Saint Charbel Church

The church of Saint Charbel is located next to the chapel, built in the 18th century. It is wedge-shaped as a whole, forming a small square between the two buildings. The sloped roof of the new church can also be used as a seat, creating an amphitheater overlooking the square and church.

Saint Charbel Church Internal Overview
Saint Charbel Church Internal Overview

The church is made of concrete, and a cross can be carved on the wall at the east end. Daylight passes through it into the interior, and the glass on both sides and above creates a holy atmosphere.

Кафедральный собор святых апостолов Петра и Павла (Москва)

Peter And Paul Cathedral Church
Peter And Paul Cathedral Church

The Peter and Paul Cathedral Church, located on the banks of the Neva River in St. Petersburg, is not only a historic church, but also a museum, so it is highly ornamental and artistic.

The Peter and Paul Cathedral was built by Peter the Great, so the interior decoration is very luxurious and complex. The gold-painted iconostasis carved from oak is decorated into a three-bay triumphal arch. Each group of patterns displayed on the iconostasis is processed with extremely fine detail and accuracy.

Peter And Paul Cathedral Internal Overview
Peter And Paul Cathedral Internal Overview

This luxurious decoration sets off the strength of Peter the Great and highlights his powerful aristocratic atmosphere, making every visitor intoxicated and unforgettable.

Seliger Pater Rupert Mayer Church

Seliger Pater Rupert Mayer Church
Seliger Pater Rupert Mayer Church

This church in Germany, designed by Munich studio Meck Architekten, features a three-dimensional geometric roof with a sculptural beauty.

The building is covered with three-dimensional white ceramic tiles, which forms a strong contrast with the stone base below, making the entire building stand out.

Seliger Pater Rupert Mayer Church Internal Overview
Seliger Pater Rupert Mayer Church Internal Overview

Inside the church, a strong sense of space is expressed through the folded shape of the ceiling. This strong differentiation can make the light in the entire church space different, thus forming a unique church decoration style.

yevangelichesko-lyuteranskiy kafedral’nyy sobor svyatykh petra i pavla

Yevangelichesko Lyuteranskiy Kafedral'nyy Sobor Svyatykh Petra I Pavla
Yevangelichesko Lyuteranskiy Kafedral’nyy Sobor Svyatykh Petra I Pavla

This church is located in the center of Moscow and is presided over by Bishop Сергея Гольцверта Witte as part of the Union of Evangelical Lutherans of the CIS.

Church Internal Overview
Church Internal Overview

The interior of the church is arched, with the altar directly below the four symmetrical neo-Gothic rose windows. Whenever believers gather to pray, a huge image will be projected onto the altar, allowing the believers to become more pious.

Skyscraper Church

Skyscraper Church
Skyscraper Church

This 11,000-square-meter church is located in Hong Kong. All functions of the church are stacked vertically within the building, which is a special church design.

Skyscraper Church Internal Overview
Skyscraper Church Internal Overview

The sky chapel on the top floor of the church is the biggest highlight. Through the curved ceiling and the embellishment of lights, a simple but rich design scheme is used to fill the atmosphere with the entire space and make people immersed in it.

Skyscraper Church Internal
Skyscraper Church Internal

The main auditorium is located on the first floor above the entrance hall. Above the auditorium, there are children’s rooms, activity rooms, choir practice rooms, as well as office space on the 8th floor and office space on the 3rd floor. The space is very large.

Drayton Green Church

Drayton Green Church
Drayton Green Church

The Drayton Green church in London looks like an unfinished paper airplane from the outside. This shape can take advantage of its sloping and pleated appearance to bring an abstract and modern design feel to the entire building.

Drayton Green Church Internal Overview
Drayton Green Church Internal Overview

The same is true for the interior of the church, where the geometric roof is supported by a steel structure and cross-laminated timber.

Large-area glass floor-to-ceiling windows bring good lighting to the interior, and the overall color matching is also full of beauty.

The Church Is Open And Bright
The Church Is Open And Bright

Summarize

By introducing the decorative styles and design concepts of the above 10 churches, we can probably summarize the following points:

  1.  Many churches use a large number of symmetry principles in their design and construction.
  2. Many churches have simple color schemes, which makes people feel comfortable.
  3. Most churches have plenty of light or bright lights, but they are not dazzling.

By analyzing the decorative styles and design concepts of the above 10 churches, I believe it can bring good inspiration to us when we build our own churches. Next, I’m giving you 5 ideas to improve your church decoration and make it more attractive to believers.

5 ideas to improve your church decoration and increase your appeal to believers

Choose as simple a color scheme as possible

Because the church is a place for believers to cleanse their bodies and minds, the simpler and more uniform the colors, the more they can soothe their impetuous hearts.

Use church LED displays to impress and remember believers

Through the rational use of church LED displays, believers can be more focused and deeply remembered.

Use natural materials as much as possible

The simpler the material, the closer it is to nature, and it is easier to create a warm and simple feeling, as if God is with us at all times.

Use candles to create an ambience

The combination of lighting can affect the atmosphere of the entire church, and candles are the most commonly used. Through the placement and burning of candles, the atmosphere of the entire church can be adjusted to create a sense of mystery.

Many people may not understand why candles have such a role. In fact, this is because in religious concepts, candles exist as a medium. When you burn a candle and tell your heart at the same time, it will carry your heart with it. Go find God.

5. Add decorations according to the season

We can make different adjustments for several special holidays throughout the year. Here are some of my ideas:

Decoration for Christmas and Advent:

Elements related to the Christmas holiday are indispensable, such as Christmas trees, snowman hats, garlands, Christmas lights and other decorations, which can all add to the festive atmosphere.

Easter decoration:

Colored eggs, chocolate shapes, lilies, rabbits, religious quotes, and some Easter-related activities such as “Easter Hat Parade”, “Egg Hunt”, etc. are all good ways to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus.

Thanksgiving decoration

Since Thanksgiving falls right into the fall and winter period, we used gourds, pumpkins, dried flowers and leaves, and other earth-toned elements to create an autumn and winter atmosphere in the church.

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