Fine pitch LED display VS mini LED display VS micro LED display

2020 will be the first year of micro LED display. It is said that the factory invested by Apple will also provide micro LED displays for Apple Watch in 2023: the latter will have major advantages such as high brightness, low reflection, energy saving, high resolution, high contrast, almost no screen burn-in and long life.

This will make micro-led display the most critical display technology innovation and investment hotspot in recent years. The rise of micro-led will inevitably form a “mixture” with concepts such as fine pitch LED display and mini LED display. So, what is the difference between small pitch, mini, and micro?

Small pitch LED display, a very historical definition

It is impossible to verify how long the small-pitch LED products have appeared. This time period is at least 10-15 years old. However, the large-scale popularity of such products is only about 5 years old.

Inside the industry and most industry data research institutions, P2.5 and below products are regarded as “small-pitch LED display”. This pixel pitch metric also has a clear “display system meaning”. That is, a 100-inch screen can accommodate 800*600 resolution content point-to-point.

Konka actively deploys Micro LEDs
Konka actively deploys Micro LEDs

For a 4:3 ratio display system, the 100-inch format is 2.03 meters wide and 1.52 meters high; for a 16:9 ratio screen, the 100-inch format is 2.15 meters wide and 1.35 meters high. About 15 years ago, high-definition content and standards were not rich enough, including indoor and outdoor “not very large-sized LED advertising screens, mainly using 4:3 content of 800*600 size”. Therefore, products that carry this content clarity have become the starting point of “small-pitch LED” by convention.

However, with the development of technology, the small-pitch LED technology continues to improve, and the spacing continues to shrink. The definition of video content is also constantly improving, so that today’s 4K/8K ultra-high-definition concept, people’s psychological “small-pitch” concept standard It is also making progress – many manufacturers have raised the entry threshold for small pitch to 2 mm pitch or 1.8 mm pitch: the visual implication is that 100 inches can carry high-definition quality content point-to-point.

Even for home-oriented LED display large-screen products, the starting performance has required a 100-inch 4K display, that is, the pixel pitch is around P0.5. Therefore, what kind of product is a fine pitch LED display is a concept with rich historical connotations, and it is also a concept that is constantly changing with technological upgrading, and it is also a concept that is closely related to specific applications and scenarios.

Of course, as a research institution, it is necessary to adhere to the P2.5 standard; however, in the era when P1.0 has made a comprehensive breakthrough, it is necessary to further research the standard subdivision, such as the “fine pitch” concept proposed by some manufacturers. reality based.

Mini LED concept, a transitional definition standard

The pixel pitch of the LED display keeps getting smaller and smaller, and the size of the LED crystals used must also keep getting smaller – however, it is obvious that the smaller LED crystal particles are packaged and integrated with “more finer” and “technical content” “Higher jobs.

“Appropriate pixel pitch, appropriate process maturity, and appropriate LED crystal particle size.” The three “appropriateness” have become the key basis for the birth of the mini-led concept. In other words, for display systems, especially products below P1.0, from the perspective of luminous brightness requirements, almost all 10-micron LED crystal particles can meet the requirements. However, considering “the particularity and difficulty of the integration process”, LED screens with a P1.0 pitch, currently using 200-300 micron LED crystal particles, are temporarily the “best” choice.

And this is smaller than the traditional LED crystal particles, but it is not the “extremely tiny” LED crystal particle size, it becomes the concept of mini-led. Specifically, it mainly refers to products with LED crystal particle size in the range of 100-300 microns. In theory, these LED crystal particles have been able to manufacture small-pitch LED display products with P0.4-P1.2 specifications. ——Of course, products with larger spacing can also apply mini-led technology.

At the same time, mini-led technology has another connotation: a new backlight source in the era of HDR display on LCD screens. As a liquid crystal backlight, LED arrays do not require very high particle densities, but do require somewhat higher brightness levels.

For example, 8K TVs may have less than 10% efficiency from the backlight to the screen brightness, and the backlight brightness needs to be more powerful. At this time, too small LED crystal particles are not competent, but mini-led technology is better.

However, as a backlight application, mini-led also has a special field: that is, to provide backlight for LCD screens such as mobile phones and smart watches, it still requires smaller LED particle size. In these product areas, whether it is mini or micro requires specific product analysis.

To sum up, the use of mini-led technology has considerations of “process maturity and difficulty”, as well as “point luminous intensity requirements”, and it is also related to the pixel pitch of the display screen or array structure. At the same time, mini-led products can also use technologies such as all-in-one packaging (such as the popular four-in-one packaging in 2018) to achieve “maximum potential and efficiency” of the traditional surface mount process system.


Mini LED concept, the technology that truly opens up the future

In the LED display, the LED crystal particles are always getting smaller and smaller: because the pixel density and PPI resolution of the display system are getting higher and higher; at the same time, the luminous efficiency of the LED material is also getting higher and higher. If the difficulty and cost of the integration process are not considered, the level of smaller LED crystal particles will be a technology with dual advantages in performance and cost, and even new application fields can be born.

For example, since 2014, Apple has been studying the use of ultra-fine LED display screens on smart watch screens. Because, as the screen of a smart watch, it must be small in size, and it requires a relatively long standby time. The built-in battery of the smart watch cannot be larger, and sometimes it needs to be used under strong light… At the same time, these conditions are met, LCD and OLED display Neither is competent.

In contrast, micro-led products have the best ability to meet the above demanding requirements. The latest news suggests that Apple’s smartwatch may use a micro-led display for the first time in 2023 – and on a one-inch screen, displaying high-definition information, it is clear that the pixel pitch will reach extremely small levels. This means that the size of the LED crystal particles is very small.

In the industry, products with an LED crystal size less than 100 microns or even 3-10 microns are generally referred to as micro technology. This kind of product can theoretically provide the needs from VR near-eye ultra-high-definition display to 200-inch screen size ultra-high-definition display – subject to the human eye’s extreme resolution capability and pixel luminous intensity requirements at longer distances, larger size LED screens, “Not cold” about micro technology.

Because the LED crystal particles of micro-led products are very small, and the pixel pitch of the final product is also very small (not larger than 1 mm, or even tens of microns), micro-led display technology can hardly inherit the existing packaging, testing, Maintenance and complete machine manufacturing technology.

That is, the surface mount LED technology has been completely replaced by the “mass transfer” technology that belongs to the micro era: in comparison, mini-led can use the mass transfer technology or the four-in-one package + surface mount technology.

Therefore, micro technology, from the final product form (one-inch or even smaller ultra-clear display products to 200-inch large screens), and the process technology system (high-precision mass transfer has become a must-have technology) “completely changed the LED. Show” the historical aspect. It is the display technology that truly opens a new era. And in the context of the continuous maturity of micro technology, the necessity of mini-led products will drop significantly.

On the whole, the rise and replacement of concepts such as small pitch, mini, and micro reflects the improvement in the fineness of LED display products and the continuous “miniaturization” of the corresponding LED crystal particle size; From surface mount to mass transfer; it even brings other key material advancements, such as the continuous upgrading of industry technologies such as glass substrate TFT to replace PCB printed circuit.


Small-pitch LED is just an upgraded technology of LED display, which further reduces the distance between the lamp beads on the LED module. It is mostly used in larger-area display scenarios, such as monitoring rooms and lecture halls.

mini LED vs micro LED are further improvements of LED and are commonly used in small display scenarios such as TVs and mobile phones.

 At the same time, this progress has also greatly broadened the application scope of LED display, from the earliest simple outdoor advertising, to indoor high-quality fine display, and even today’s TV color TV products, future VR, smart watch or smartphone screen applications, etc. , creating a space for the industry to continue to grow, and bringing huge wealth opportunities in the LED industry.

Is Mini LED same as micro LED?

No, Mini LED and Micro LED are two different display technologies. Mini LED refers to the use of smaller-sized LED backlights to provide higher brightness and contrast to improve the performance of traditional LCD displays. It uses more small-size LED backlight sources on the LCD panel to achieve better black performance and more delicate brightness control through local dimming.

Micro LED is a brand-new display technology that uses tiny-sized LEDs as the light source for each pixel, which can achieve the advantages of self-illumination, high contrast, high brightness, and high color accuracy. Compared with traditional LCD and OLED technologies, Micro LED has higher pixel density and longer life, and can also achieve larger-size display panels.

Although Mini LED and Micro LED are both further developments of LED technology, they differ in backlight and pixel structure, and therefore have different characteristics and application scenarios.

Is Mini LED really better?

Mini LED technology does have some advantages over traditional LCD displays. The following are the advantages of Mini LED:

A. Higher brightness and contrast: Using more small-size LED backlights, Mini LED can provide higher brightness and contrast, making the picture brighter and more detailed.

B. Better black performance: Mini LED can achieve independent control of each LED backlight area through local dimming, thereby providing better black performance and higher dynamic range.

C. Reduce halo and light leakage: Mini LED technology can reduce halo and light leakage, provide a more accurate local dimming effect, and better present details and colors.

D. Longer service life: Mini LED backlight has a longer service life than traditional CCFL backlight, improving the reliability and durability of the display.

However, Mini LED also has some limitations and challenges. These include high manufacturing costs, complex manufacturing processes, and limitations on screen size and resolution.
In addition, the improvement effects produced by Mini LED technology may vary between different products, and other factors need to be taken into consideration, such as the quality of the display panel and color accuracy.

Mini LED technology has certain advantages in providing higher brightness, contrast and black performance, and has been applied in some high-end display products. However, when choosing a display device, you still need to consider factors such as personal needs, product performance, and price.

Is Micro LED better than OLED?

Micro LED and OLED are both advanced display technologies. Each has its own advantages and characteristics. It is not simple to compare their advantages and disadvantages.
Here are some comparisons of Micro LED and OLED:

A. Brightness and contrast: Micro LED has high brightness and high contrast, which can provide bright pictures and deep black performance. OLED technology can also achieve self-illumination, so it also has excellent performance in terms of brightness and contrast.

B. Energy consumption: Micro LED performs well in terms of display effect and energy consumption because it can turn off pixels that do not need to emit light and reduce energy consumption. The OLED screen can also achieve pixel-level light emission control, but it may be relatively more prone to brightness attenuation problems, and weak screen burn-in may occur after long-term use.

C. Lifespan and stability: Micro LED has long life and excellent stability because it does not have organic light-emitting materials like OLED and is not prone to the problem of attenuation of the light-emitting device. The light-emitting device of OLED is an organic material, which may have a cumulative effect over time, resulting in a shorter lifespan.

D. Production cost and process difficulty: At present, the production cost and process difficulty of Micro LED are relatively high and are still in the early stages of development. OLED technology has matured and been commercialized earlier, and its production costs are relatively low.

Micro LED and OLED have their advantages and limitations, and their applicability may vary in different application scenarios. At this stage, OLED has been widely used in smartphones, TVs and other markets, while Micro LED is promising in wearable devices, large display walls and other fields. With the further development of technology, we can also expect more breakthroughs and innovations in both technologies.

Who wins mini LED OLED or micro LED?

Mini LED OLED and Micro LED are currently very advanced and promising display technologies, and they have their own advantages in different aspects.

Mini LED technology is excellent at improving brightness, contrast and black performance, and is especially suitable for large-size displays and high-end TV products. It has already been adopted in some high-end display devices.

OLED technology has the characteristics of self-illumination, high contrast, and fast response, and has been widely used in the smartphone and TV markets. OLED screens have excellent performance in terms of color saturation, contrast and flexibility.

Micro LED is a brand-new technology that has the characteristics of self-illumination, high brightness, high contrast and long life. Although it still faces challenges such as high manufacturing costs and difficult processes, it is considered to have great potential in areas such as wearable devices, large display walls, and AR/VR.

These three technologies may have their own status and uses in different markets and application areas. The specific winner will vary based on many factors such as market demand, technological progress and manufacturing costs.

Fine pitch LED display VS micro LED display

Small-pitch LED displays and Micro LED displays are both advanced display technologies, but they are different in implementation methods and application fields.

Small-pitch LED display screen refers to the use of very small LED modules to form a display screen, which is usually used for indoor large-screen displays, such as conference rooms, monitoring centers and stages.

It has the following advantages:

A. Excellent display effect: The small-pitch LED display has high brightness, high contrast and full color performance, and can display clear and delicate images and videos under various lighting conditions.

B. Strong splicability: Small-pitch LED displays can be modularly spliced as needed to achieve almost seamless connections, and are suitable for large-scale display walls and customized screen sizes.

C. Long life and reliability: LED display has a long service life and stable performance, and can continue to display for several years without excessive maintenance.

Micro LED display is a new display technology that uses tiny independent LEDs as pixels to form a display screen. It has the following characteristics:

A. High brightness and contrast: Micro LED display can provide excellent high brightness and contrast, presenting eye-catching and vivid pictures.

B. Self-illumination and local dimming: Each LED pixel of the Micro LED display has self-illumination capability and can achieve deep black color at higher brightness. Additionally, since each pixel can be dimmed independently, more precise local dimming control can be achieved.

C. High refresh rate and response speed: Micro LED display has fast response speed and high refresh rate, which is suitable for dynamic pictures and fast-moving content.

Regarding the comparison between small-pitch LEDs and Micro LEDs, the current manufacturing cost and technical difficulty of Micro LED displays are relatively high, and they are still in the early stages of development. Small-pitch LED displays are already highly mature and widely used in the commercial market. With the advancement of technology, Micro LED displays are expected to become a more advanced and mainstream display technology in the future.

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